This is your Brain on Sleep – Stages of Sleep

Cycling through the Sleep Stages
Part of the Sleep Series

© by Madelyn Griffith-Haynie, CTP, CMC, A.C.T, MCC, SCAC

“Sleep is not a luxury or an indulgence but a
fundamental biological need, enhancing 
productivity, mood, and the ability to interact with others.”

~ Russell G. Foster, a leading expert on chronobiology

zzzzz_in bed_blue 298x232Gettin’ those Zzzz’s

Until the mid-twentieth century, most scientists believed that we were asleep for approximately a third of our lives — experienced, primarily, in a uniform block of time that was the opposite of wakefulness.

THAT was pretty much it.

Their assumption was that sleep was a homogeneous state.  It’s most salient feature was considered to be the fact that you were NOT AWAKE.  Duh!

The main side-effect of sleep deprivation, so it was believed at the time, was that you got sleepyOh my.

  • It was assumed that we needed some sort of down-time to recharge our batteries somehow.
  • There was so little curiosity about sleep, very few scientists felt that it was worthy of the time or money for research.

In the 1950s, the breaking news from one of the few sleep labs was that sleep actually consisted of two distinct states:

  1. Rapid eye movement sleep [REM], which distinguished dreaming sleep, according to what they knew at the time
  2. AND . . . the rest of it!
    (imaginatively referred to as “non-rapid eye movement sleep” [NREM])

You probably already know that REM sleep was so named because it was noticed that the eyes moved quickly back and forth under closed eyelids – rather like they might if the sleeper were speed-reading a teeny-tiny English-language book.

BRAINonSleepLooking More Closely

In rapid succession, with the advances of electro-physiological studies, new findings were announced.

These findings came about thanks to the use of technology known as an electroencephalogram [EEG].

An EEG measures the brain’s electrical activity and translates these measurements into a pictographic representation of what we now refer to as brainwaves.

With the help of measuring technology, NREM sleep revealed itself to be composed of a series of distinct stages of what was then presumed to be un-consciousness: NREM1, NREM2, NREM3 and NREM4.
(No prizes for nomenclature creativity were awarded!)

This four stage division became the standard in 1968, what is called the Rechtschaffen and Kales (R&K) standardization.

And then there were three

Almost forty years later, in 2007, non-REM sleep was reduced to three stages by The American Academy of Sleep Medicine [AASM], combining stages 3 and 4. You will still see both classification systems in internet articles and older books.

My personal belief is that R&K Stage-4 sleep, distinct from R&K Stage-3 and more specific than the AASM Stage-3, will prove to be important in research on sleep disorders — so I prefer to pay attention to non-REM sleep in the original four categories rather than the relatively recently collapsed three.

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Milo VanDerLinden

Milo VanderLinden

As you can see on the graphic above, even without metrics, each of sleep’s stages is characterized by a distinctive pattern of slower brain waves interspersed with spikes of more rapid oscillations.

This finding was in marked contrast to the more or less continuously rapidly oscillating waves of REM sleep. It also contrasted with brain waves characterizing the generalized state of consciousness we refer to as “awake,” which also features rapid oscillations.

REM sleep has sometimes been referred to as “paradoxical” sleep because brain wave activity looks relatively similar to that of an awakened state.

Periodic eyelid fluttering, and changes in muscle tone, breathing, body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure distinguish REM from non-REM sleep stages.

  • In REM sleep, heart and breathing rates are irregular and, unless there is a sleep-problem, the muscles of the body are effectively paralyzed (“low muscle tone”), supposedly a protective measure to keep us from acting out our dreams.
  • Body temperature is not well regulated during REM sleep, and physical sexual arousal is not uncommon. In addition, the release of norepinephrine, serotonin and histamine is completely shut down during REM Sleep.[7]

Throughout Non-REM Sleep, muscle activity is still functional. In addition, breathing rate slows down and EEG-measurable brain activity is “minimal” compared to brain activity associated with either wakefulness or REM sleep.

Other Findings about Sleep Architecture


External influences as well as some categories of internal stimuli have less influence on the brain during sleep than during wakefulness.

To an extent that varies by sleep stage, our brain becomes “deafferentated” — meaning an elimination or interruption of sensory nerve fibers — so we become partially deprived of sensory stimulation.

A misunderstanding of deafferentation led to the concept of sleep as a passive phase, contrasting it with the active state of wakefulness in an unexamined stroke of black and white thinking.

Thanks to the physiological findings of the last 50 years, we now know that sleep is an extremely ACTIVE state for the brain. Most parts of the brain are active in sleep, even though their functions and interrelationships differ from the manner in which they present during wakefulness.

It also became apparent – to scientists paying attention to sleep, anyway – that sleep’s distinct stages cycled throughout the night in relatively predictable patterns with healthy sleep architecture.

In the “average” individual, Non-REM and REM sleep alternate in approximately 90 to 110-minute cycles.

  • In a sleep-normal individual, not only does each cycle last for about one and a half hours, a good night’s sleep “normally” consists of at least three – and more commonly four to six – of those cycles.
  • At the beginning of that good night’s sleep NREM sleep predominates (particularly its deeper stages), but REM sleep typically appears at around ninety minute intervals.
  • The lighter stages of NREM sleep appear first, and frequently alternate with brief episodes of wakefulness before the deeper NREM sleep stages are entered.
  • Again, in a sleep-normal individual, as the night progresses the REM episodes become longer, and NREM sleep stages become shorter and progressively lighter in preparation for awakening.

NowHearThisNOW HEAR THIS: Frequent awakenings found perfectly normal!

Contrary to the beliefs of insomniacs who ruminate about them, brief arousals to wakefulness are a normal feature of sleep.

Most of us take little conscious notice of them, generally shifting position before falling right back into sleep’s arms – with little to no memory of those awakenings in the morning.

In addition to changes in brain activity, researchers noted an accompanying reduction in heart rate of about 10 beats per minute and a slight reduction in core body temperature, as well as a decrease in external sensation awareness, accompanied by a decrease in movement.

  • Perhaps one reason for the experience of insomniacs is that they raise their heart rate and core body temperature with undue attention to those brief periods of arousal, disrupting the body’s ability to naturally and easily return to sleep.
  • Normalizing brief awakenings and avoiding agitation – teaching one’s self to self-soothe – might go a long way toward changing the experience of fractured sleep forever.

A Quick Review

To underscore what I told you in an earlier Sleep Series article,
Health, Success and Successful Sleeping
(REALLY worth taking the time to read or review, especially
if you are someone who struggles with sleep)

Wakefulness is that state of awareness in which we are conscious of our surroundings and access our ability to interact with them.

It is characterized by fast, low voltage EEG activity where we typically observe both alpha and beta waves.

  • Beta waves are the ones we need to activate and run our
    lives, by the way (typically in short supply in ADDers).
  • Alpha waves are the ones most typically accessed in
    meditative states.

To review the Brain-Wave Table,
CLICK HERE for Health, Success and Successful Sleeping — scroll DOWN for it

Quiet Wakefulness

As we begin to drift off to sleep, Stage 1 sleep begins. It is actually a transition period from wakefulness to sleep, characterized by low voltage EEG and slow rolling eye movements.

In other words, an EEG would detect the onset of sleep, even if we ourselves feel like we are “skimming along the surface” of sleep and wakefulness.

Anyone who struggles to fall asleep and/or stay asleep would be well advised to embrace quiet wakefulness as part of the sleep process.
This stage is somewhat restorative all by itself, as long as you embrace it
instead of agonizing over it.

In any case, by the early 1960s, sleep-science was beginning to note that how well rested one felt – as well as how well one functioned – depended not only upon the total sleep time, but also upon how much of each of the various stages of sleep he or she received the previous night.

Running the Bases on Sleep’s Home Field

After lying awake for ten minutes or so, we enter NREM sleep – non-rapid eye movement (thirty minutes or so before onset of sleep is frequently reported by individuals in the ADD community).

As described above, NREM sleep is divided into stages based on differences in EEG patterns. Each stage is considered a progressively “deeper” stage of sleep — primarily because awakening periods are progressively less common, because wakening becomes progressively more difficult the “deeper” into sleep you go.

After cycling through the NREM stages we enter REM sleep, where the EEG recording is similar to that of wakefulness or drowsiness.

  • That’s the sleep stage identified by rapid eye movement, and the stage we most associate with dreaming. Our most vivid dreams, along with our most vividly recalled dreams, occur during REM sleep.

We tend to recall them, that is, if we are awakened during or immediately following a period of REM sleep.

The recollections are fleeting, so if you want to remember your dreams, keep a dream diary by your bed.

  • Most people don’t realize that dreaming also occurs during non-REM sleep, as measured by a polysomnograph.

Those dreams are rarely remembered, although some subjects report an impression of “mood” or a sensation similar to that experienced when we are distracted from a thought we meant to communicate and now can’t quite recall.

Stages of NREM sleep

  • Stage 1 – occurs mostly in the beginning of sleep, with slow eye movement.

In Stage 1 sleep, Alpha waves disappear and theta waves appear. If you are aroused from this stage of sleep, you will probably believe that you have have not been asleep at all, or that you “only closed your eyes for a moment.”

As Stage 1 sleep approaches, this is when you are likely to experience those little body twitches known as hypnic jerks, transitioning into Stage 1 sleep.

  • Stage 2 – no eye movement occurs, and dreaming is very rare.

Most people are easily awakened from Stage-2 sleep. During this stage, EEG recordings tend to show characteristic “sleep spindles” and “K-complexes,” which we’ll cover in another article in the sleep series.

Again, if you are aroused from this stage of sleep, you will probably believe that you have have not been asleep at all, and many insomniacs react with anger that they “are never going to get to sleep!”

  • Stage 3 –  in the R&K standardization, Stage 3 sleep was the transition between stage 2 and stage 4, a stage where the delta waves first began to appear.
  • Stage 4 –  in the R&K standardization, Stage 4 sleep is characterized by a predominance of those slow delta waves of deep sleep.

In Part-2 of this article, we’ll look at each of the sleep stages a bit more closely.

zzzzz_in bed_blue 298x232Sleeping through their racket

ADDvice for those of you who spend more time in Sleep Stages 1 and 2:

If you could embrace your frequent awakenings as part of the normal process of those particular stages of sleep – and impress upon housemates who have sleep rhythms that have them up and about while you are trying to sleep that they need to play very quietly and listen to television and music with headphones – you may find that you will awaken less frequently as time goes by.

It is counter-intuitive, but the knowledge that you are probably getting more sleep than you initially realized will allow many of you to return to the natural rhythm where you awaken briefly, turn over, and go back to sleep.

If you react with anger at each awakening, or get out of bed to lecture your housemates, you will probably create the opposite of what you want – a good night’s sleep!

  • If your expectations are not unreasonable, and your family is truly inconsiderate about your need for quiet to be able to sleep, explore some of the articles on boundaries and set some!
  • If they are merely unaware, a “no music or TV after my bedtime” rule will probably get them to turn the sound w-a-y down to a level most of you will be able to sleep through, as long as control is not the main objective on either side.
  • If they insist on the fairness of “the spirit of the law” while you push for “the letter of the law,” everybody loses, and YOU don’t get to sleep! (Pick your battles.)

Slow Wave Sleep

In the 2007 AASM classification, Stages 3 and 4 are merged together in a stage referred to as slow-wave sleep [SWS].

  • Dreaming is more common in slow-wave sleep than in other stages of NREM sleep — but not as common as in REM sleep.

The content of SWS dreams tends to be disconnected, less vivid, and less memorable than those that occur during REM sleep.[8]

  • This is also the stage where we find arousal disorders are most likely to occur, where the sleeper is trapped half-way between sleep and awakening.

The most common of these are sleep-walking, night-terrors, and a seeming awakening into a confused and disoriented state (especially in children). We’ll cover more about this particular category of sleep disorders, known as parasomnias, in the future sleep articles.

Phillip Martin, artist/educator

Phillip Martin, artist/educator

Sleep’s Home Field isn’t EXACTLY
What we Thought

Accepted methods of categorizing sleep into one state or another using conventional EEG criteria don’t paint a completely accurate picture of how our brains sleep.

  • EEG methods paint a false picture to the extent that they create the impression that the process is a rigid progression – or a progression at all, exactly.
  • Brain functioning is, after all, a distributed process.
  • Sleep is a constantly changing dynamic — a combination of a number of functional processes within the brain — in both sleep AND waking states.

The current thinking among sleep-specialist researchers is that there is probably a continuous flow to various brain states — a sort of tag-team manner by which parts of the brain move in or out of one or the other of these states throughout the night AND day.

As strange as it sounds, what that indicates, were we to categorize strictly by EEG, is that parts of the brain could be predominantly in NREM sleep, while another part may be tending towards REM sleep, while another part might record brain-waves consistent with the alertness of the waking state.

CLEARLY, more research is necessary, as the serious sleep scientists continue to struggle for funding to DO some!

William Dement’s Life-long Quest

dr-dementDID YOU KNOW that octogenarian William Dement, “the founder of sleep medicine” has spent his entire LIFE attempting to sound the alarm about sleep disorders, all of which are associated with easily recognizable symptoms?

When he was the chair of the National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research, following a comprehensive study that revealed an almost total lack of sleep-literacy among doctors, he reported to the U.S. Congress that “The absence of awareness about sleep disorders is so pervasive and complete, it can be changed only by a strong federal initiative.”

  • The Commission instructed Congress to
    “remedy this situation without delay.” 
  • Unfortunately, but not surprisingly,
    Congress did not respond to its own Commission.
  • The primary responsibility to DO something
    stills falls to individuals and their families,
    beginning with educating their care providers.

For ADD Coaches, especially, where 75% of our client base struggles with sleep, this is foundational information we NEED to know!

Read more about the studies undertaken by the Commission in Chapter 16 of an early book by Dement: The Promise of SLEEP – a pioneer in Sleep Medicine Explores the Vital Connection Between Health, Happiness, and a Good Night’s Sleep (with Christopher Vaughan)

LEARN more about Sleep and Sleep Disorders (including what to DO about them) right here in the Sleep Series on

As the Sleep Series continues, upcoming Articles will go over other basics of sleep — like the importance of allowing yourself enough time to cycle through all the sleep phases

(which will help to explain WHY some amounts of sleep make it harder to wake up at a certain time, and how to tweak to make it easier – along with an explanation of how those nifty calculator aps work their magic to help you decide when to go to bed based on when you need to be up, along with suggesting the best times to set your alarm!)

We’ll also take a closer look at the various sleep disorders, what happens when chronorhythms destabilize and some of the warning signs that you are dancing to close to the destabilization edge — so you don’t want to miss out.

MEANWHILE, scroll down to check out the links. There’s a lot to know, and a lot more to come. Get it here while it’s still free for the taking.

Primary Non-Internet References for the Sleep Series

Attention-Deficit Disorders and Comorbidities in Children, Adolescents, and Adults, Chapter 10: Attention-Deficit Disorders With Sleep/Arousal Disturbance, Thomas E. Brown and Edward J. Modestino
Circadian Rhythm and Human Health, a paper by Joan E. Roberts, Fordham University. Department of Natural Sciences
Evaluation and Management of Sleep Disorders, third edition, Martin Reite, John Ruddy, and Kim Nagel
• Rhythms of Life
, Russell G. Foster and Leon Krietzman

The Promise of Sleep, William C. Dement and Christopher Vaughan

As always, if you want notification of new articles in the Sleep Series – or any new posts on this blog – give your email address to the nice form on the top of the skinny column to the right. (You only have to do this once, so if you’ve already asked for notification about a prior series, you’re covered for this one too). STRICT No Spam Policy

If you’d like some one-on-one (couples or group) coaching help with anything that came up while you were reading this article (either for your own life, that of a loved one, or as coaching skills development), click HERE for Brain-based Coaching with mgh, with a contact form at its end, or click the E-me link on the menubar at the top of every page. I’ll get back to you ASAP (accent on the “P”ossible!)

Related articles right here on

Sleep-related article ’round the ‘net

BY THE WAY: Since is an Evergreen Site, I revisit all my content periodically to update links — when you link back, like, comment (or follow), you STAY on the page. When you do not, you run a high risk of getting replaced by a site with a more generous come-from.

About Madelyn Griffith-Haynie, MCC, SCAC
Award-winning ADD Coach Training Field founder; ADD Coaching field co-founder; [life] Coaching pioneer -- Neurodiversity Advocate, Coach, Mentor & Poster Girl -- Multi-Certified -- 25 years working with EFD [Executive Functioning disorders] and struggles in hundreds of people from all walks of life. I developed and delivered the world's first ADD-specific coach training curriculum: multi-year, brain-based, and ICF Certification tracked. In addition to my expertise in ADD/EF Systems Development Coaching, I am known for training and mentoring globally well-informed ADD Coach LEADERS with the vision to innovate, many of the most visible, knowledgeable and successful ADD Coaches in the field today (several of whom now deliver highly visible ADD coach trainings themselves). For almost a decade, I personally sponsored and facilitated seven monthly, virtual and global, no-charge support and information groups The ADD Hours™ - including The ADD Expert Speakers Series, hosting well-known ADD Professionals who were generous with their information and expertise, joining me in my belief that "It takes a village to educate a world." I am committed to being a thorn in the side of ADD-ignorance in service of changing the way neurodiversity is thought about and treated - seeing "a world that works for everyone" in my lifetime. Get in touch when you're ready to have a life that works BECAUSE of who you are, building on strengths to step off that frustrating treadmill "when 'wanting to' just doesn't get it DONE!"

41 Responses to This is your Brain on Sleep – Stages of Sleep

  1. Pingback: Sleep Basics affecting Sleep TIMING | ADD . . . and-so-much-more

  2. Pingback: Sleep Timing and Time Tangles | ADD . . . and-so-much-more

  3. Pingback: If music be the food of health, play ON! | ADD . . . and-so-much-more

  4. dgkaye says:

    Such a great post. How did I miss it, lol? Glad Sally reblogged. Well I think we’ve already discussed my max 6 hour sleep. But I thoroughly enjoyed reading more here on the subject. 🙂 xx

    Liked by 1 person

  5. Tina Frisco says:

    What struck me most was “teaching one’s self to self-soothe .” If I wake to go to the bathroom, I don’t dare turn on the lights or I might never get back to sleep. One of my cousins took it a step further when she was young ~ she kept her eyes closed while walking to the bathroom. There was one unfortunate incident where she sat on her brother and … Well, you can imagine the rest of that scenario 🙂 Very informative post, Madelyn ♥

    Liked by 1 person

    • Hysterical story! I doubt that either got back to sleep that night – a new twist on fear of the dark. Do they both leave the bathroom light on all night now? 🙂

      Thanks for underscoring the self-soothing concept. Parents eventually learn they must leave their kids in bed alone so they can learn to self-soothe and fall asleep, but not many are willing to remain in bed themselves when their brains are fussy.

      Of course, the psychologically-based advice to get out of bed it you can’t sleep after 30 minutes or so adds to the problem. DUMB advice, IMHO!

      Liked by 1 person

  6. Mary Smith says:

    Fascinating article. I’ve slept much better since the snoring husband moved into the spare room!

    Liked by 1 person

  7. Reblogged this on The Writers Desk and commented:
    This post is well worth reading….very informative.Thank you for sharing.
    This is your Brain on Sleep – Stages of Sleep
    by Smorgasbord – Variety is the Spice of Life.

    Liked by 1 person

  8. blondieaka says:

    An interesting post..although my sleep pattern is head, pillow,die most of the time On occasion I wake up early and maybe read or write and then back to sleep. But an excellent article 🙂

    Liked by 1 person

    • Thank you so much for taking the time to read and comment, Carol. I get so many complaints about how l-o-n-g it takes to transition into sleep, that reading about your way is kinda’ refreshing – lol.

      Have you noticed that if you get more sleep than usual it takes a bit longer to fall asleep? The standard thinking is that your rapid sleep response is a sign of sleep-debt – but I have noticed that many people push through the earlier signs that they are getting sleepy, so they are sort-of “dozing” before their heads actually hit that pillow.

      In any case, if you function well during your days you’re probably doing fine where sleep’s concerned. I *know* I get the sleep I need because I prioritize it these days, but even I have nights where I awaken, work on an article for a bit, then go back to sleep — and I do fine the next day. Like most things in life, there are “norms” and then there is what actually happens. 🙂

      Liked by 1 person

      • blondieaka says:

        I wouldn’t say I doze….I just go to sleep when my eyes and my body feel tired if that makes sense. It doesn’t seem to matter what time as I only slepp 7 hours max and once I am awake.. I am awake …Which why if I wake too early although I have a hubbie who is used to me tapping away in the middle of the night…lol that doesn’t happen too much now…I think surrounding have a big impact on your sleep, well for me they do…My last house which I loved but I didn’t love my bedroom…I woke more in the night…In this house, I love my bedroom and it gives me a sense of peace I sleep much better.I don’t know if that would make sense to the sleep experts …lol Have a lovely weekend xx

        Liked by 1 person

        • Actually that “love your bedroom” point is underscored by many of the sleep gurus. They advise “making your bedroom a sanctuary.”

          I’ve never noticed it made a difference about staying asleep – once asleep little awakens me no matter where I am. But I did seem to fall asleep faster (and happier) in my NYC bedroom, which was perfect for me. In retrospect, I think the lack of to-do reminders in that room was a bit part of it for me.

          You have a great weekend too.

          Liked by 1 person

  9. Reblogged this on Smorgasbord – Variety is the spice of life and commented:
    Did you sleep well last night.. I had some particularly vivid dreams and that will teach me not to eat cheese late at night.. we all have our triggers for a restful or disturbed night’s sleep and I suggest you head over to Madelyn Griffith-Haynie for her in-depth guide to something that is essential for our physical and mental health. #recommended

    Liked by 1 person

  10. Really enjoyed this read! Very informative 🙂

    Especially liked reading about the Stages of NREM sleep. My therapist and I are looking in to REMD so this was a very useful read for me! Thank you very much

    Louise xx

    Liked by 1 person

    • I am truly impressed by your follow-thru skills, Louise. You SAID you intended to investigate the Sleep Series, and here you are. And pdq too!

      Do you know how RARE that is in my ADD universe?
      (and by that I mean follow-through PERIOD – not simply follow-through quickly).

      We have only the BEST of intentions, truly we mean well but, before we get around to it life seems to have a way of taking most of us in some other direction 😐 — and then we lose the thread to what we meant to do until some time MUCH later.

      At that point we are embarrassed that we’ve dropped out something *again*, and decide to wait a bit longer, hoping the additional time will somehow help us figure out what to say about why we haven’t done it before — and the beat goes on! (Um, don’t ask me how I know this, ok? I’d hate to have to lie to you 😀 )

      Wouldn’t it be GREAT if some of your own personal struggles turn out to have been the result of an undiagnosed sleep disorder? Know that I eagerly anticipate hearing all the details.

      (I didn’t miss the fact that you are ON investigating the possibility with a therapist, too — I stand in your shadow)

      ONE last A+ (for now) — you are one of the few who remember to comment or like so I actually know you’ve been here. I gotta’ tell you, that’s my fav. Seriously, thank you.

      I SO appreciate your support, I have come to the point where I now look for your poor blind duck as I go through my WordPress notifications every day (no pressure – just sayin’)

      And NOW, I’m off to see what you’ve been up to on *your* blog (you know I love your writing).


      • Haha I like that you look for my blind duck in your notifications, I have to say I do the same for your picture. Well of course I comment and like and love and share – what your writing about it real, it is honest, informative, and clever, whilst being user friendly. Your blog is one of the best I have ever come across.

        So even though as you say it is hard to follow through, not due to a lack of wanting to, I find it hard to not remind myself every couple of days to go and check out that smart blog with the lovely lovely lady mgh. I feel incredibly unreliable at the moment so I understand where you coming from 🙂

        I will be checking out the rest have no doubt! Just may take a little while 🙂

        Louise, xx

        Liked by 1 person

        • It’s not about the velocity – its the direction that counts. Trust me, there have been times (like recently, for example, but others too) when I couldn’t show up for anyone at all.

          And, with my sleep disorder, sometimes the only thing I CAN do with the hours I am awake is read (once I’m fully alert) or write (a blog article, a chapter, etc.). Not much will be open here in Cincinnati after 8 PM!! (another reason why I miss NYC sooo much – it’s a 24-hour town — so’s Vegas, but I’m heat defensive <===link and that city is like a pizza oven most of the year)

          So when I'm in a screwy phase (relative to vanilla functioning), I often hit the blogs and say hello People respond when it works for them.

          It's an odd way to connect, I guess, but it does work (as long as everyone stays chill and nobody gets offended when others are busy!)

          It's 6:41 PM here and I have been awake for less than an hour. ::groan:: My brain boot is slow, so it will be 8-ish before I could rely on myself to get out the door without EXTREME frustration. That means another night with my computer — because I won't be able to sleep until dawn, at LEAST, when I'll be down for the count for another 8 hours. (THAT part is pretty regular, unless awakened by another)

          Which is a long way round to say simply this: don't make yourself wrong when I seem to outpace you, comment-wise. There will most certainly be a time when it is the other way.



  11. andy wolmer says:

    well done

    Liked by 1 person

  12. Well done. And you sure are good at finding and picking illustrations; I particularly like the one for sleep architecture.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Thanks – and that illustration/point is one of my favorites too – it’s fun to see who relates to what.

      I wish I could create my own illustrations, but I don’t seem to have been given that particular talent in any format. We do what we can, right? In the hours given to us in which to do them.

      Thanks for reading – and for commenting. Given your excellent sleep site, your opinion is significant.


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